Exodus 19

Talks for Growing Christians

The Covenant of the Law Accepted by the People

Exodus 19

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Lesson Number 23

Background Notes

Doctrinal Point(s)

  1. Under the Law Israel was to be a Kingdom of Priests.
  2. Under the Law Israel was to be a Holy Nation.

Practical Application

  1. Have you experienced the blessing of eagles’ wings?


  1. Where did the Israelites arrive in this chapter? How long did it take them to get there?
  2. Give arguments in favor of Jebel Musa in the Sinai Peninsula being the site of Mount Sinai.
  3. How long did the Children of Israel camp at Mount Sinai?
  4. What does it mean that the Mosaic Covenant was a “conditional” covenant?
  5. Is the Mosaic Covenant in effect today?
  6. What was the purpose of the fire and lightning on the mountain and the boundaries around it?


  1. Exactly three months after the Exodus, the Children of Israel arrived at the base of Mount Sinai.
  2. 1) There is a desert plain at the base of Jebel Musa large enough for a few million people to camp. 2) The granite rocks of Jebel Musa rise abruptly and steeply from the desert plain, so it could be easily roped off (verse 12).
  3. Almost a year, during which time the Ten Commandments and the rest of the Mosaic Law was given.
  4. This means there were certain requirements that the people must keep, or the covenant between God and His people would be broken.
  5. No, because the Law was a conditional covenant and Israel broke that covenant. Romans 10:4 says that the time of the Mosaic Covenant ended with the coming of Christ. Christ fulfilled the Law, so we are no longer under it.
  6. These dramatic elements emphasized the holiness of God and the sinfulness of the people. The people could not just approach God in any way they chose or at any time they chose. We must approach God His way.


  1. God intended for Israel to be a kingdom of priests, mediating God’s grace to the other nations of the world. But because of Israel’s sin and disobedience, the nation failed this purpose. As believers we are called priest of God. See 1 Peter 2:5. As priests, we offer our spiritual sacrifice of praise to the Lord. Are you fulfilling this purpose?
  2. Does God still have plans for the nation of Israel? Yes, based on the unconditional Abrahamic Covenant. Discuss the difference between the Mosaic and Abrahamic Covenant. Discuss the error of saying the Church has replaced Israel in the plan of God.


  1. Our culture wants us to believe we can approach God in any way we choose at any time we choose. Yet for the Israelites at Mount Sinai and for us today, we must approach God His way. Jesus says, “I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through Me” John 14:6.

Key Verses

  • “You have seen what I did to the Egyptians, and how I bore you on eagles’ wings and brought you to Myself.” Exodus 19:4
  • “And you shall be to Me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation.” Exodus 19:6
  • “Then the LORD came down upon Mount Sinai.” Exodus 19:20

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